Environment and biodiversity

This course provides an overview of SFM and FC. Trainees should have a common understanding of the concept of SFM and FC, relevant international and Vietnam legal framework and context. Information on the status, opportunities, and challenges of implementation of SFM and FC, and general knowledge of role of forests for decision making and planning. Main content including:

  • Introduction of SFM; the bio-ecological, economic, and social principles underlying forest management strategies;
  • Introduction of forest certification, forest certification systems.
  • Relavant international legal framework (ILO, CBD, Stochkhom, CITES …) and Vietnamese regulation (Forestry Law 2017, Degree 156, VPA FLEGT, Circular 28/2018, Decision 1288…).
  • Current situation, opportunities and challenges in the current context, and tasks for forest managers.

Provide knowledge about nature conservation, particularly biodiversity and high conservation value forest (HCVF), including habitats and corridors along water courses (lake, stream…) as considered ‘buffer zone’. Some main contents:

  • International and Vietnamese regulations protected species;
  • Techniques of biodiversity survey;
  • Methods of HCVF assessment;
  • Classification and identification of important forest species, including natural distribution and ecological characteristics;
  • Development of a conservation plan which includes mapping of major habitats associated with important species (Rare, Endangered & Threatened species = RET); major threats and activities to prevent or mitigate these threats;
  • Practice on the field of biodiversity surveys, HCV surveys, identification of some important species.

Provide knowledge about methods of EIA in forestry activities. Objective of EIA is to identify potential negative impact of forestry activities on the environment as well as on biodiversity and propose suitable solutions for mitigation of the impacts. This course includes the following content:

  • Requirements of EIA;
  • Identification of forestry activities that may affect environment and biodiversity/ HCVF;
  • EIA methods;
  • Data analysis and solutions to mitigate negative impacts;
  • Integrating solutions in SFM plan;
  • Implementation of solutions;
  • Monitoring of implementation;
  • Prepare EIA report in implementation of SFM plan;
  • Practice in the field on techniques of EIA by some forestry activities such as nurseries, preparing forest plantation sites, logging, etc …

Provides knowledge and regulations related to communities when conducting forestry activities:

  • Identifying local communities in surrounding areas with details of their interests;
  • Method of social impact assessment (SIA);
  • Benefit sharing between forest management unit and these communities;
  • Potential conflicts raised from forestry activities (such as road construction, land tenure, water uses) and solutions;
  • Method of stakeholder consultation when conducting environmental and social assessment;
  • Practicing on the field on the method of social impact assessment, consultation methods for stakeholders.
  • Practice EIA and SIA

Provide knowledge on management of germplasm sources, nurseries, and seedling production according to current regulations on germplasm management and nurseries, specifically:

  • Management of germplasm sources, including seed stand, seed orchard, seed planting materials, etc
  • Establishment and management of nursery that meet legal requirements on seedling production, including germplasm and seedling/plantlet certification, chemical use, etc…
  • Basic techniques of seedling production (focus on the popular planted tree species), typical seedling diseases, evaluation, and improvement of seedling quality;
  • Field practices on nursery management and seedling production in a nursery and visit demonstration plantation forests that used improved germplasm sources.

Provide knowledge on silviculture concepts and techniques for natural forests in accordance with current regulations.

  • Basic principles (ecological and economic) and methods of forest rehabilitation and forest enrichment to meet defined forest management objectives (timber production, NTFP, PES, ecotourism…);
  • Regulations on silviculture techniques for natural forests
  • Assisted natural regeneration: Identification of target saplings, canopy opening, tending of saplings …
  • Enrichment planting, including tree species selection (knowledge on ecological demands and growth potential of relevant tree species), site preparation and planting, methods of underplanting;
  • Natural forest enrichment based on principles and advanced methods of controlling growth and quality of forest to meet defined management objectives;
  • Field practice on the techniques of assisted natural regeneration and enrichment plantin.

Provide knowledge on silviculture concepts and techniques for plantation forests in accordance with current regulation:

  • Basic principles (ecological and economic) and methods of planting, tending and nurturing forests to meet defined objectives (timber production, NTFP, PES, ecotourism…);
  • Regulations on silviculture techniques for plantation forests
  • Site classification, site-species matching;
  • Species selection for different purpose;
  • Site preparation, tree planting;
  • Tending, fertilising, pruning, and thinning;
  • Economic and ecological aspects of plantation forest, Agro-forestry systems;
  • Field practice on those techniques

Provide information and knowledge about current regulations on pest and disease control, prevention and treatment methods of pests and diseases for some common tree species and integrated pest management measures.

  • Current regulations on pest and disease control;
  • General information and knowledge about pests and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and insects affecting forests (mainly on nurseries and plantation forests);
  • Pathogenesis, symptoms, methods of recognizing pest and diseases on some common forest plant species);
  • Prevention and treatment methods. Integrated pest management;
  • Practice in the field on how to identify pests and diseases of some common tree species and some control and treatment measures.

Provide knowledge of RIL (for both natural forests and plantation forests), from planning, design to implementation, including following contents:

  • Requirements of RIL;
  • RIL design;
  • Equipment and maintenance;
  • Work safety/First aid/personal protective equipment (PPE);
  • Camping;
  • Waste management;
  • Directional felling;
  • Skidding and transporting;
  • Post-harvest cleaning;
  • Practicing on the field about some RIL measures.

Provide knowledge of forestry road system and log-yard design, construction and maintenance based on ecological and economic principles:

  • Road classification and density;
  • Design of the road system (skid trails, transport roads);
  • Technical specification of the roads;
  • Road construction;
  • Road maintenance;
  • Construction of log yard;
  • Soil erosion control;
  • Land slide control;
  • Water drainage;
  • Work safety;
  • Waste management;
  • Practicing on the field about some measures to maintain the forestry road system.

Provide knowledge on planning of monitoring and evaluation (M&E), techniques of M&E for the development, adjustment, and monitoring of SFM plan. M&E must include all activities and aspects, including chain of custody (CoC). The course should include following themes:

  • Requirement of M&E;
  • Definition/identification of the indicators;
  • M&E planning;
  • Data collection methods and tools;
  • Data analysis (evaluation);
  • Integrating M&E result in adjustment/updating of the plan;
  • Publicise the M&E result;
  • Doing exercises and practicing on the field about monitoring and evaluation of SFM plan implementation.

Provide knowledge and information about forest certification (FC) and some important FC systems such as FSC, PEFC:

  • Information of forest certification (context, historic development, benefits, structure of a FC system…);
  • PEFC, FSC and national FC systems including standards of forest management (FM), chain of custody (CoC) and group certification (FM and CoC);
  • Procedure of certification;
  • Certification fee;
  • Auditing techniques, certification reports, interpretation of reports, Corrective Action Request (CAR);
  • Environmental impact assessment & Social impact assessment (EIA & SIA), high conservation value forest assessment (HCVF), Stakeholder consultation, the right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) concept and practice
  • Common Non-Conformities found during auditing process in Vietnam; corrective actions and closing experiences;
  • Chain of custody (CoC);
  • Survey and practice (some activities of auditors; forestry production activities, environmental impact assessment).

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